About

COMPANY

Bakhtar Technologies, originally called “Bakhtar Associates,” is a small business research and engineering company established in November 1989 as prime contractor to the United States Department of Defense. It is a limited Liability company with headquarter in Newport Beach, California. USA

DIRECTOR

Bakhtar Technologies was founded by Dr. Khosrow Bakhtar in 1989. Dr. Bakhtar serves as the Managing Director and Chief Scientist of the organization. He has been promoting innovative ideas in research and engineering related to the United States national security and commercial sectors. The company’s foundation was setup on US DOD Small Business Innovative Research platform and received several SBIR contracts from the US Air Force which are now in Phases III of  their commercialization.

DIRECTOR’S CV

Dr. Khosrow Bakhtar, ARSM, Ph.D., PE
Mobile:     +1 949 500 – 1460
E-Mail: kbakhtar@bausa.org

Education   

Ph.D Mining Engineering (Rock Mechanics), University of Utah 1985
Ph.D Candidate, Material Science and Mineral Engineering (Rock Mechanics), University of California, Berkeley 1981‑1982
M.Sc. Civil Engineering (Structures and Mechanics), Princeton University 1982
M.Sc. Mining Engineering (Geomechanics), Pennsylvania State University 1979
B.Sc., HON. Mining Engineering, Royal School of Mines, Imperial College of Science and Technology and Medicine, University of London, England 1976
G.C.E. General Certificate of Education (G.C.E) –Advanced Level in Mathematical Science, Croydon Technical College, Croydon, Surrey, England 1971
G.C.E. General Certificate of Education (G.C.E) – O-Level in Mathematical Sciences, Woodnewton Tutorial Est., Oxfordshire, England 1969

Teaching Experience

2011 – Present Adjunct Professor of Rock Mechanics and Mining Engineering, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico
1983 Ph.D. Candidate, University of Utah, Department of Mining Engineering

  • Electrical Power Transfer for Underground Mining (upper level Undergraduate course)
1989 – 1983 Visiting Lecturer, University of California at Los Angeles School of Business, Engineering and Management

  • Rock Mechanics – Theory and Practice (4 credits)
  • Geologic Engineering Aspects of Underground Excavation and Tunneling (4 credits)
  • Rock Mechanics and Tunneling in Rocks (6 credits)

Committees and Posts

1989 – Present Managing Director – Chief Scientist/Engineer, Bakhtar Technologies, LLC.
2014 – 2016 CEO and CTO Bakhtar Personnel-Borne Gold Interrogator (BPGI) Corporation
2011 – Present Adjunct Professor of Mining Engineering, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico.
2009 – Present Managing Director, Bakhtar Technologies, LLC.
1989 – 2010 President and CEO, Bakhtar Associates / Bakhtar Technologies, Geomechanics – Electromagnetic Research and Engineering.
2006 – Present President and CEO, Bakhtar Forced Resonance Imaging for Oil and Gas Exploration Company.
2007 – 2011 President and CEO, Bakhtar Medical Imaging Corporation (a Delaware Corporation)
1991 – 1993 Member of Geotechnical Engineering Publication Committee, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Journal of Geotechnical Engineering
2007 – 2012 Visiting Scientist, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (LABioMed) at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
1999 – Present Registered Professional Civil Engineer, State of Florida, PE # 53635

Professional-Experience

Dr. Khosrow Bakhtar experience is in low-power electromagnetic, tunneling, mining engineer­ing, RF/microwave instrumentation and sensor development, geotechnical research, in-situ and labora­tory testing and applications, nuclear and conventional weapons and underground structures interaction, specializing in geomechanic and electromagnetic.  He has managed some of the most challenging national and private projects of the last three decades, including development of sensors for shielded nuclear material detection, development of sensors for improvise explosive devices (IED) detection, submerged and subsurface target detection and discrimination, development of methodology for perpetrator weapons performance assessment based on site specific characteristics of geologic and engineered systems and those of weapons, development of safety criteria for storage of ammunition in underground structures, design and evaluation of support requirements for soft ground tunnels in urban areas, hardening schemes for missile silos and underground strategic structures, dynamic load response evaluation of underground structures associated with defense nuclear projects, development of high‑strength concrete for hardened underground structure design, radioactive waste storage, pumped hydroelectric projects, design and installation of instrumentation schemes for rock mass behavior monitoring during and post excavation stages, sub-sea dredging, underground coal mining, physical modeling at normal and elevated gravity, hydro-thermo-mechanical and thermo-physical property evaluation of geologic materials, and design of long‑term creep testing facilities for evaluation of creep behavior of salt associated with salt cavities design and performance for storage of natural fuel.

Dr. Bakhtar’s professional and technical interests include tunnel design/construction in soft-ground, rock mass characterization/modeling, stability analysis, in-situ and laboratory testing and instrumentation. They also include research and development of rock mechanics applications for high‑level radioactive waste storage, facilities citing, hazardous waste projects, and programs dealing with the response of structures in rock mass to nuclear and non‑nuclear munitions.  He has authored or co-authored more than 100 technical papers and reports in rock mechanics and physical modeling, large scale testing, instrumentation, site characterization, tunnel support evaluation, and performance assessment of underground structures.

Dr. Bakhtar played the key role in the development of high‑strength concrete for the MX Missile Advanced silo Hardening Program. For this project he developed state‑of‑the‑art, high‑strength concrete with unconfined compression strength exceeding 16 KSI and conducted static and dynamic loading tests to characterize the material properties.  For the Defense Threat Reduction Agency formerly known as Defense Nuclear Agency, he developed scaling laws and formulated an experimental approach for scale‑model testing of underground structures.  He then designed and conducted scale‑model testing pro­grams to evaluate the dynamic response of model tunnels and tunnel intersec­tions using rock simulants.  He evaluated the response of scaled model underground struc­tures to simulated nuclear blast, and predicted the velocity and accele­ration for closure of unsupported tunnel sections and intersections sub­jected to free‑field nuclear loading.  He designed and constructed two large circular reaction frames and associated flat-jacks for plate bear­ing tests in pressure tunnels, and conducted in-situ modulus of deforma­bility as well as creep tests to evaluate large‑strength rock mass behavior for economic design of concrete liners.

In the area of dynamic soil‑structure interaction, Dr. Bakhtar developed expe­ri­mental as well as numerical models for research using a large centrifuge.  He performed tests to evaluate the dynamic response of model piles under steady state lateral loading using a centrifuge for modeling. He developed a special bucket for the centrifuge to conduct tests on soil to achieve perfect consolidation. Physical model­ing tests were performed at high gravity to inves­tigate the vertical penetration of marine pipelines at the sea floor using the large centrifuge at Princeton University, Civil Engineering Department.

Dr. Bakhtar has conducted large‑scale dynamic joint friction expe­riments to predict block motion and tunnel hardening for the Defense Threat Reduction Agency formerly known as Defense Nuclear Agency.  He evaluated the effects of asperity and rock mass material properties on static and dynamic frictional properties of rock joints, and developed a theo­retical approach for prediction of shear strength of rock joints based on the Barton Joint Model and characteri­zation of intact rock and fractured surfaces. He has modeled shear, dilation, permeability coupling, normal closure, and conductivity of rock joints for nuclear waste repository design. He developed software and integrated a hardware package to provide a mobile system for field characterization of rock joints and prediction of the coupled shear displacement‑dilation effects on ultimate permeability of rock joints.  In addition, he developed data acquisition and experimental facilities for water‑jet‑assisted rock cutting and drilling systems, and conducted large‑scale geo-technical testing and analysis of backfill performance in stabilizing missile egress shafts.

Dr. Bakhtar conducted thermo-physical characterization studies for Boeing’s Ballistic Division. Tests included thermal conductivity and heat capacity measurements at elevated temperatures, under atmospheric pressure, using cylindrical rock cores.  Results were used by Boeing to validate their nume­rical model on the “Heat Sink” concept for the Air Force Ballistic Missile Office.

Dr. Bakhtar’s recent research has been in the field of electromagnetic and microwave. He developed the US Air Force EarthRadar, a unique multi-station sensor, for detection of buried unexploded ordnance. By conducting characterization tests on different soils, he was able to develop an innovative concept for antennae design to meet a site-specific ground condition. These antennae were successfully tested under adverse saturated and unsaturated soil conditions. Developed a unique platform and procedure for underwater detection, ocean floor interrogation, and target identification and demonstrated the proof of concept in an exercise with the US Navy EODGRUONE at Coronado Island in California. His recent research is focused on performance validation of the Bakhtar Explosive Detection (BXD) for IED detection. His most powerful invention is the “forced-resonating” antennae which facilitates ease of detection of weak signals with superior signal-to-noise ratio. This work was done through internal research and development and supported in full through in-house funding.

 

October 2010 – to Present
DETECTION OF NATURAL CAVERNS AT CIBOLA NATIONAL FOREST NEW MEXICO – A DEEP UNDERGROUND ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROJECT
MOUNTAINAIR, NEW MEXICO

Developed procedure and planned extensive sub-surface interrogation using BakhtarRadar to detect an underground opening in Cibola National Forest Mountain Range. Depth to 600-ft in sedimentary rocks with extensive blocky and fractures features and joints filled with clay was interrogated in search of the subject cavity. Around April 2011 a network of cavities were realized / discovered and validation for  proof of presence of the underground structure system were made through sequence of operations which included (a) volumetric imaging – to establish size and configurations of the underground network; (b) drilling a 3-in diameter hole to verify cavity location; (c) lowering a video camera to observe cavity surroundings; (d) sinking a 9-ft diameter shaft by the side of the cavity and connecting to the upper right corner of the underground opening via a 74-ft horizontal drift. Detected network of natural cavities are currently being evaluated for potentially valuable artifacts and other assets of extremely high value.

 

November 2007  – to present
BAKHTAR FORCED-RESONANCE MEDICAL DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING (BMI) DEVICE

Dr. Khosrow Bakhtar is the inventor of the technical approach of absorption of energy at the quantum emission bands and Forced-Resonance Imaging (FRI) as a concept for medical imaging applicable to human/animal screening. He initiated the “near-field” radar research, in early 1990, developed the “emission spectral band detection” concept for transmission of electromagnetic energy at powers well below cellular telephone for non-invasive realization of embedded anomalies and narrow band detection for human screening. Dr. Bakhtar’s major contribution in medical diagnostic imaging is his invention of the “Forced-Resonance Imaging” (FRI) for low-power electromagnetic energy (less than 10 milli-watts) transmission into human/animal body with no radiation and ability to characterize/discriminate between healthy and cancerous tissue/tumor based on absorbed RF energy. This technique provides the foundation for the Bakhtar Medical Imaging device. BMI screening device defines a new rapid and cost-effective approach for diagnostic imaging on human/animal body that uses the ability of tissue and related embedded anomaly to absorption of RF energy in certain frequency band – quantum emission bands – as a means of determining its presence. It is an extremely low-power portable medical screening device with capability to reconstruct 3-D (volumetric) images from anomalies or use the absorbed energy to differentiate between healthy and deceased tissue. BMI can swiftly and safely interrogate human/animal body, locate and characterize anomalies with higher resolution than other available devices. Screening is done by moving the sensor head (antennae) at a standoff (20-cm) over portion of the body to be interrogated. Speed of movement is controlled at rates of about 1- to 30-mm/sec depending on the size of the suspected anomaly. Its applications include but not limited to: cardiology – oncology – orthopedic –   neurology, with resolution better than (±1-mm).

                       

November 2004 – to present
Calibration of Standoff IED Detection Sensors
Funded Internally By Bakhtar Associates

 Developed low-power electromagnetic sensors for Improvised Explosive Device (IED) realization under “transmission” (portal configuration) and “reflection” (carried by a moving platform) modes of detection. The developed sensors can be deployed under portable or stationary configurations. The enhanced sensitivity associated with the developed sensors enables an combination of receive-transmit sensors to be used for detection of Personnel Borne Improvised Explosive Devices (PBIED) and Vehicle Borne Improvised Explosive Devices (VBIED). The technology is currently working using post-processing for detection. Efforts are underway to validate the real time detection capability of the sensors by calibrating them against specific explosives. The Marine EOD team at Camp Pendleton provided the logistic supports during the initial phase of the sensor development. The United States Marines EOD Teams provided the test site and required explosives. Bakhtar Associates supported the experimental investigation using in-house funds.

 

 2005 – to present
FORCED-RESONANCE TECHNIQUE FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSMISSION AT LOW-POWER

Dr. Bakhtar recent research on IED detection lead to invention of a novel electromagnetic technique allowing low-power electromagnetic energy be forced resonating onto any man-made or natural systems using a specially designed horn or dipole antennae.  The backscattered or forward scattered returns are then used for target detection and its intrinsic material property characterization. The forced-resonance enables return energy to be processed with superior signal-to-noise ratio facilitating ease of target detection in particularly improvise explosive devices (IED) carried by personnel, in luggage, or sealed metallic containers. Using this technical approach tests have been performed in which ability to overcome “Faraday’s Cage” and “Skin-Depth” effects were demonstrated through tests on sealed lead boxes containing variety of solid and liquid contents. Threshold of detection for each specimen tested were used to differentiate or discriminate each class of object under test (OUT).

 

2007 – to present
DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUMETRIC AND 4-DIMENSIONAL VISUALIZATION RF SENSOR FOR EMBEDDED ANOMALY DETECTION AND HUMAN BODY SCREENING

Successfully conducted feasibility investigation of using BakhtarRadar with forced-resonating antennae for human body screening to detect, diagnose, and characterize embedded anomalies such as cancerous tumors, broken bones, and blood clot. The first series of tests were conducted at the Harbor-UCLA Medical Center on Phantom, an apple, an orange, and an egg. The radiological attenuation of a real patient was simulated using a standard Phantom (11-cm X 10-cm X 4.5-cm) block. The luc-al phantom used composed of clear acrylic-polymethyul methacrylate and aluminium. This two-component object designed to match accurately narrow beam attenuation of tissue thickness being simulated with good accuracy for all energies in diagnostic range. The results of test conducted demonstrated much higher resolution and signal intensity for the signature obtained with miniaturized version of BakhtarRadar than those from the X-ray machine. The research is now being continued to integrate a high resolution laser and gyro stabilizers with the forced resonating antennae for volumetric reconstruction and body screening of patients with embedded anomaly. It is anticipated that utilization of the final product can make a major contribution towards safe screening of potential patients to detect, diagnose, and characterize cancerous tumor and other embedded anomalies.

 

2006 – to present
Personnel Borne Improvised Explosive Device (PBIED) Detection
US Marine, Camp Elliott, San Diego, CA                                 

Performed research and investigated hardware, software fine-tuning and system verification on Bakhtar Explosive Detector (BXD). More than two years of efforts were directed on improving explosive detection capability. Types of explosives included C-4 (plastic explosives), composition B and variety of others which were provided by the EOD Team at Camp Elliott in San Diego, California.

 

August 2012
TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGING THROUGH SEALED LEAD BOX (FARADAY’S CAGE) USING BakhtarRadar WITH FORCED-RESONANCE CAPABILITY

Agilent Technologies – Scientific Team. Santa Rosa, California

 BakhtarRadar with “forced-resonance” (FR) capability was deployed to demonstrate the ability to overcome Faraday’s Cage and Skin Depth effects. The experimental investigation was witnessed by a team of scientists and engineers, including Chief Technology Officer, from Agilent Technologies. Agilent team members decided on the choice of targets placed inside a completely sealed lead box (Faraday’s Cage) for interrogation. The Principal Investigator successfully demonstrated the ability of BakhtarRadar with “FR” to overcome the “Skin Depth” and “Faraday’s Cage” effects through detection of emplaced objects inside the lead box.

 

January 2012 – to May 2012
PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF MASSIVE ORDNANCE PENETRATOR 
(MOP) FOR HARD TARGET DEFEAT                                     Prepared for the United States Department of Defense
Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA)

Empirically modeled MOP response using Bakhtar Penetrator Model (BPM) to take out underground facility designed and constructed in hard Target. Site specific characteristics of geologic and engineered systems, as well as those of the warhead, were used for the prediction scenarios. A complete report that includes all analysis and calculations performed, typical generic results obtained, were submitted to the Defense Threat Reduction Agency and United States Air Force at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida.

 

November 2011
FRACTURE MAPPING OF TERRA TEK SCHLUMBERGER MANCOS SHALE BLOCK BASED ON REFLECTION TOMOGRAPHY USING BakhtarRadar

Conducted fracture mapping and realization using BakhtarRadar with its forced- resonance imaging (FRI) capability on a block specimen of Mancos Shale with overall dimensions 28-cm X 28-cm X 38-cm. The shale block contained many holes which were used for acoustic emission studies. BakhtarRadar detected two major fractures running perpendicular to the axial 5-cm hole within the block. It appears that the oil companies have much interest in non-invasive evaluation and mapping of fracture in shale formation which is important for oil recovery. BakhtarRadar may provide the most cost-effective and user friendly tool for fracture mapping and realization based on non-invasive approach. The interrogation of the block was performed using a pair of “forced-resonating” adaptive horn antennae design and constructed at Bakhtar Associates electromagnetic laboratory.

 

 2009 – to 2010
CALIBRATION OF FORCED-RESONANCE IMAGING (FRI) FOR VEHICLE AND PERSONNEL BORNE  IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE DEVICES (VBIED & PBIED)                                                                        

Conducted experiments using 200 pounds live explosives (C-4) to calibrate the Bakhtar FRI sensor against various types of explosives at Camp Pendleton Marine EOD facilities – this activity and the work was conducted as part of the effort defined under the joint Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) Indian Head Bakhtar Associates and Lockheed Martin cooperative research and development agreement – dated February 22, 2006.

 

 2007 – 2010
DEEP OIL-GAS DETECTION

Constructed an “ocean simulator,” comprising of a series of a completely sealed boxes made with aluminum-lead walls. The assembly was filled with 3.5% salt saturated sand, representing geologic settings of sea-floor, to investigate technical issues associated with oil/gas exploration in deep water and below cap rock. This assembly was designed by senior physicists from Royal Dutch Shell Oil Company in Netherland and fabricated at Bakhtar Technologies laboratory in Newport Beach, California. Validated the ability of the newly invented Forced-resonance” technique for overcoming “Faraday’s Cage” and “Skin Depth” effects in sealed lead-aluminium boxes filled with saturated sand with high salinity. Conducted extensive experimental investigation to validate detection capability of BakhtarRadar with “forced-resonating” antennae through sealed lead-aluminium boxes filled with salt saturated sand for detection and discrimination of embedded “resistive” and “conductive” targets. The experimental investigation was witnessed by chief geophysical scientist from Royal Dutch Shell.

  

2007
REALIZATION OF BURIED HUMAN REMAINS USING BakhtarRadar BASED ON REFLECTION TOMOGRAPHY

Developed experimental approach and analytical methods for interrogation of suspected burial sites to locate and identify human remains using the BakhtarRadar platform with integrated differential GPS and medium to small aperture dipole antennae. Forced-Resonating (FR) antennae were designed and constructed for this operation. The satellite triggering ground-based BakhtarRadar with FR antennae were used to interrogate the burial sites and tomographic images were prepared for realization of extend of deterioration and remains detection.

 

February 2006
CLANDESTINE TUNNEL DETECTION 
NORAD USNORTHCOM J42

Conducted proof-of-concept demonstration on clandestine tunnel detection at two locations (Otay Mesa and Calexico) next to the US-Mexico border as directed by  NORAD U.S. NORTHCOM J42 personnel. BakhtarRadar with the integrated high-resolution (± 1-cm) GPS satellite triggering system was used for the subject tunnel detection and location identification. The 3-D algorithm developed in-house was used for volumetric tunnel image reconstruction which revealed the dimensional details of the underground structures with 100% accuracy.  It appears that utilization of clandestine tunnel for trafficking contraband substances or human objects is becoming the preferred choice by certain groups of terrorist. The ability of BakhtarRadar to detect and reconstruct 3-dimensional image for detailing of these man made or natural sub-surface openings can be considered to be a major technical breakthrough in terms of capability and cost-effectiveness for law-enforcements and national security agencies.

 

2006 January to February
UNDERWATER DETECTION AND 3-D IMAGING
United States Navy – NTSC1
Conado Island, California                                                                                           

Conducted underwater detection exercise under controlled conditions with United States Navy EOD team at Coronado Island in which selected known targets were used for proof-of-concept demonstration. The submerged targets consisted of a base plate and a PDM mine. The targets were laden on the ocean floor and detection was done using the BakhtarRadar setup on a pair of Zodiac floating boat. Both targets were successfully detected and the reflected signals were used to reconstruct 3-D images for better realization of submerged objects. Results of volumetric image reconstruction furthermore revealed the anchorage assembly which was secured to the ocean floor supporting the PDM mine via a narrow cable.

 

2005
Detection of Bacillus Thuringiensis and  Tri-Ethyl Phosphate
 Shielded in Artillery Shell an Experimental Investigation Using BWMD Sensor
Funded Internally By Bakhtar Associates

Conducted experimental investigation to validate performance of the Bakhtar Chem – Bio detection sensor referred to as BWMD. Specimens of Bacillus Thuringiensis and Tri-Ethyl Phosphate simulating biological and chemical agents were shielded inside a 155-mm artillery shell and their radar signature for detection were successfully acquired and displayed in color and threshold format. The detection time, following completion of calibration tests, was noted to be less than 2-second. This significant finding may show promise to mass produce Chem- Bio- sensors at a cost effective and rapid paste. The technical report was submitted to the Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Manager for dissemination to the interested Government agencies. Bakhtar Associates supported the experimental investigation using in-house funds.

 

2002 – 2004
AZIEL Sensor for Shielded Nuclear Material Detection
Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA)
Contracts: DTRA01-03-C-0060 & Contract: DTRA01-02-C-0056
Alexandria, Virginia

Developed a unique technology for shielded nuclear material detection and conducted tests on weapon grade nuclear and non-nuclear material for initial performance evaluation of the system. The two Phase contracts enabled the capability of BakhtarRadar to overcome the “skin” and “Faraday Cage” effects to be fully demonstrated under variety of test conditions before the leading scientists at the Department of Energy National Laboratory (Las Alamos in New Mexico). The most complex tests which was successfully performed consisted of detection of 5-gm of Plutonium and Uranium concealed in triple shielded stainless steel container.

 

2004
Detection of Armed and Unarmed Personnel behind a Thick Wall Using Bakhtar Electromagnetic Sensor                                                
Supported Internally by Bakhtar Associates – Technical Report Submitted to DTRA

 Developed experimental and analytical tools for thick wall interrogation and checking for armed and unarmed personnel passing by. Successfully tested the system with assistance from the Newport Beach Police Department and was able to discriminate between personnel carrying machine gun, hand gun, and unarmed passing behind a thick cinder block wall.

  

2004
Near Field Response of US Navy Special Classified Materials
 1-in, 2-in and 3-in to Bakhtar Time Domain Identifier (BTDI)               United States Navy, Director of Special Technologies
Dahlgren, Virginia 22448-5100

Conducted discrimination and classification tests with optimal success on special secret materials provided by the US Navy using Bakhtar Time Domain Identifier – these materials were the terrorist choice for destroying an aircraft in-flight. The material tested were representative of explosive compounds found on the “Shoe-Bomber” who tried to blowup an aircraft en-route from England to the United States several years ago.

 

2002 – 2004
Performance Assessment of Penetrator Weapons
United States Air Force
SBIR Phase II, Contract AF08630-02-C-0020
Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

Program Manager and Principal Investigator for development of a unique technology for assessing performance of penetrator weapons by accounting for the overall site-specific characteristics of the geologic, engineered systems (target), and yield of the weapons. Field explosion tests for this major Air Force Project were conducted with support from Naval Air Warfare Center personnel at the Navy Cactus Flat Test Range.  Formulated a set of empirical models for prediction of penetrator weapons (BLU 109) depth of penetration and resulting damage to the underground structures (shock loading), validated them by conducting a series of five large scale filed explosion tests using scale modeling technique at 1-g. The developed and verified empirical models can provide predictive tools for assessing performance of BLU-109 penetrator weapons for taking out targets at a given geologic setting. By simple adjustment of the Caliber Radius Head (crh) the developed empirical mathematical models can be applied for performance prediction of other types of penetrator weapons which include and not limited to GBU-28 and MOP.

 

2002
Water Table Detection at Simi Valley, California
United Nations – UNISEF Volunteer Works in Support of Refugees Children In Third World Countries
Simi Valley Golf Course, Simi Valley, California

Developed field tests methodology to detect water table in support of the United Nations Refugee program to find water for homeless children in third world countries. Demonstrated a unique application of EarthRadar for saturated-unsaturated zone detection using a pair of long-wavelength dipole antennae and modified versions of EarthRadar software. The water table detection procedure was successfully demonstrated at a golf course in Simi Valley. Mean elevation of water table was detected at 66-ft with variation of the order of ±1-ft. Test site geology consisted of sedimentary layers of moist sandy-clayey-cobbles with an average electromagnetic wave speed of 5.5 cm/nano-sec.

 

 2001
Performance Assessment of Penetrator Weapons
United States Air Force
SBIR Phase I, Contract AF08630-01-C-0025
Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

Program Manager and Principal Investigator developed a novel technology for performance assessment of penetrator weapons. The assessment is done by accounting for overall site-specific characteristics of geological and engineered systems and yield of weapons. Performed feasibility studies for identification of pertinent parameters relevant to weapon-underground interaction investigations. Formulated generalized empirical response and degree-of-damage equations, proposed and developed a physical modeling approach for concept demonstration and verification of formulated mathematical expressions (Empirical Models).

 

2001
Underwater Mine Detection and Discrimination
US Navy, EODGRUEONE
Coronado Island, California

Program Manager and Principal Investigator – participated in an exercise with the US Navy EODGRUEONE in Coronado Island and demonstrated the feasibility of under-water detection using the EarthRadar technology. The retrieved data was analyzed using EarthRadar software and 3-images were constructed for submerged target identification.  Results were presented to Admiral Michael Sharp, Program Executive Officer Mine and Undersea Warfare, United States Navy.

 

1999 – 2000
Detection and Discrimination of Buried Small Arms and Grenades at the Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach Using US Air Force EarthRadar
Part I – Detection in Clayey-Sand Moist Soil
Parts II and III – Detection in Dredged Fine Silt

Program Manager and Principal Investigator responsible for detection and discrimination of buried small arms and grenades at the Naval Weapons Station in Seal Beach, California. 2.5 acres of land near the ocean was investigated for buried UXO. US Marine EOD Team verified the findings by recovering the identified buried targets. Conducted detection tests for buried UXO in dredged fine-silt on the harbor near missile loading dock to locate buried UXO before relocating the dredged silt materials.

 

2000
Italian Navy Standard Missile Test Cell Hardened Wall Anchorage Design
Sicily, Italy
United States Navy
Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC)
Port  Hueneme, California

Performed rock mechanics studies, at the Italian Navy Underground Missile Test Cell Facility, and evaluated the local geological settings for design of hardened wall anchorage system. This operation was conducted in Sicily under contract with the United States Navy (FMS). Performed “index” testing to acquire rock mass data and designed anchorage scheme to secure the wall against accidental detonation of missiles being serviced in the NATO underground facility. The site specific characteristics of the geological system were used for assessment of energy (blast) containment in case of accidental detonation of a single missile during preventive maintenance operation.

 

1999 – 2000
Detection and Identification of Buried Glass Vial and Poisonous Gas
Drums
at the Edwards Air Force Base, California

 Program Manager and Principal Investigator responsible for detection and discrimination of buried containers suspected to contain poisonous gas. As an integral part of this study, sub-surface exploration was conducted to locate the bed rock, trench bottom and other geologic features at the site.

 

1999 – 2000
Detection of Buried Penetrator Weapons at White Sands m
issile Range
US Air Force and Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA)
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE

Participated in EathRadar (BakhtarRadar) ground interrogation to locate a buried GBU- 28 penetrator weapons. Performed data analysis for depth and location identification of buried penetrator weapons – (classified program).

 

1999 – 2000
Underground (Tunnel) Structure Detection
Joint Task Force – Six (JTF-6)

Program Manager and Principal Investigator for the operations conducted (Law Enforcement Sensitive – no details provided) – (classified).

 

1998
Development of Tomography Software and Antennae for US Air Force EarthRadar Buried UXO/Clutter  Detection and Discrimination
SBIR  Phase II – Department of Defense
A
rmstrong Laboratory,  Brooks Air Force Base
San Antonio, Texas                        

Program Manager and Principal Investigator to develop the next generation antennae for the US Air Force EarthRadar UXO detection sensors and 3-D volumetric image reconstruction tool for buried clutter/target discrimination.

 

1998
Detection of Buried Penetrator Weapons at, Utah Hill Air Force Base
 Test and Training Range (UTTR), and Dugway Proving Ground – Utah

Participated in a joint exercise with personnel from Eglin Air Force and Hill Air Force Base to locate several penetrator weapons, which was lost in, salt-water saturated geologic setting. US Air Force EarthRadar system, developed by Bakhtar Associates, was used for locating the buried bomb. Each individual bomb was detected with information on their depth and surface footprints. Depth of detection is not reported in this document for security reason.

 

1997-1998
Development of Tomography Software and Antennae for US Air Force EarthRadar Buried UXO/Clutter Detection and Discrimination
SBIR  Phase I and Phase II
Department of Defense, Armstrong Laboratory, Brooks Air Force Base
San Antonio, Texas                                                   

Principal Investigator and Project Manager for the United States Air Force Air Force EarthRadar sub-surface detection program. The primary objective of this SBIR effort is to develop and refine UXO detection, location, and discrimination technologies. The development of such technologies is achieved through systematic research, laboratory and bench scale tests, leading to performance validation based on large pilot scale proof-of-principle demonstrations. The laboratory and bench scale test approach facilitates proper identification of physical, chemical and environmental phenomenological factors affecting the proposed UXO sensor hardware integration as well as the development and refinement of the acquisition and processing software algorithms. Of equal importance is the potential application of the developing technology for the identification, location, etc. of other environmental contaminants. The development of the tomography discrimination software is based on an innovative approach to reconstruct image from returned EarthRadar signals for which the variable ground characteristics and transmitted signal bandwidth are accounted for. The development of the antennae is based on optimizing coupling with the ground in which site specific material properties of the earth and the most suitable transmitted signal bandwidth are accounted for.

 

1997 – 1998
Test and Evaluation of US Air Force EarthRadar under Different Soil Conditions
United States Air Force, Air Force Weapons, Air Base and Range Office
Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

Principal Investigator and Project Manager for the development of innovative technologies for improved detection-location-and discrimination of buried UXO.  The US Air Force EarthRadar multi-station sensor, developed by Bakhtar Associates under a separate contract, is used to characterize different soil conditions and assess the capability of the system for detection of buried UXO under different site specific geologic systems.

 

1997
Hollywood Hills Tunnel, Wilshire Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA
Los Angeles County – Department of Public Works
F. Shea Company, Inc. (Contractor)

Reviewed the overall design, performed settlement analysis and made recommendations for stability during construction phase of the tunnel. The 24-ft wide by 24-ft high-horse shoe tunnel was to be constructed in loosely dense soil for water drainage.

 

1996
Post-Blast Debris Survey and Analysis – High Performance Magazine
Certification Explosion Test #3
United States Navy
Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC)
Port  Hueneme, California

Performed site survey to map the blast-induced fragments. Analyzed data to determine the quantity-distance (Q-D) around the magazine. This test was considered to be of the critical transport scenario type with 30,000 lbs of MK82 bombs in shipping and receiving area, 4,000 lbs of MK84 bombs above the transport aisle, and 26,000 lbs of MK82 in the storage cell. Critical acceptors included bombs, torpedoes, mines, and projectile.

 

1996
Steel-Concrete-Shotcrete Support Lining Calculations – U.S.  Highway-71 Transportation
Tunnel State of Arkansas,
 Highway Commission         

Designed the support system based on temporary steel support for a wide transportation tunnel, to be constructed in soft shale and sandstone, for Shea General Contractor. Initial stability for the excavated span is to be provided by steel ribs (8WF40) in combination with the shotcrete, crown bar, and rock bolts. Shotcrete was recommended to be used extensively for protection of the exposed shale surface and prevention of pore pressure dissipation during the construction activity.

 

1996
Stability Analysis for East End Ventilation Shaft – City of San 
Diego, Clean Water
Program North City Tunnel Connector 
(NCTC)
San Diego, California

Performed analytical calculations to determined load and required support scheme for the ventilation shaft raiser to be constructed at the east end of NCTC in San Diego. The design of the tunnel was based on the concept proposed by Khosrow Bakhtar.

                                                                         

1992 – 1994
Detection and Disposal of Buried Bombs
SBIR Phase II United States Department of Defense
Air Force Weapons, Air Base and Range Office
Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

 Principal Investigator and Project Manager for development of the US Air Force next generation buried UXO detector. The multi-station Radar sensor was developed and successfully tested at the United States Naval Air Warfare Center in China Lake, California under management of the US Air Force and supervision of the US Marines and Navy personnel.  Several missiles and mines were buried and detected using the developed sensor which included MARK 84, MARK 82, 155 mm projectile, Italian anti-personnel mine, Italian anti-tank mine, and former Soviet Union anti-personnel mine.

 

1996
Conceptual Design of the PCH Under-crossing Tunnel
Newport Beach, California

Developed a conceptual design for an under-crossing tunnel under the Pacific Coast Highway in Newport Beach, California. The 10-ft wide by 10-ft high horseshoe cross-section tunnel is to provide beach access for the California State Park Ranger’s vehicles and pedestrian crossing from the north-west to the south-east side of the freeway. Perform analysis on soil based on plasticity. Limit theorem, to determine the degree of subsidence which may occur as a result of soft ground tunneling. The developed concept was published in a special edition of the American Society of Civil Engineers.

 

1995
Los Angeles Metro Rail Construction – Blasting Consultant to JMA
a Joint  Venture of Jacob Engineering  Group Mott MacDonald-Hatch ACG
Environment, North Hollywood Construction Management

Reviewed and provided comments on the contractor-blasting pattern for construction of the Metro Rail tunnel through the fault zone in the Hollywood Mountains. The work also included evaluation of the air-blast and the ground vibration monitoring plans and other safety related issues.

 

1995
Ground Zero Characterization at the U. S. Navy High Performance Magazine
Explosion Test Site
Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, California

Responsible for characterization of the geologic (host ground) and engineered (structure) systems at the magazine explosion test site constructed at the Naval Air Warfare Center in China Lake, California. Seismic reflection and index tests were performed to characterize the site and determine the “impedance” contrast between the ground and the structure. This work was authorized by the US Air Force for Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center in Port Hueneme, California.

 

1995
Blast-Induced Fragment Recovery and Analysis from the US Navy
High Performance Magazine” Explosion Test
Experimental Certification Test No.1.
Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, California

Responsible for automated fragment recovery and analysis from the Navy  High Performance Magazine” Explosion Test – Experimental Certification Test No.1. Performed analysis for the Quantity-Distance based on the Department of Defense standard of one fragment per 600 ft2. This work was authorized by the US Air Force for Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center in Port Hueneme, California.

 

1995
Detection and Disposal of Buried Bombs
SBIR Phase I United States Department of Defense
Air Force Weapons, Air Base and Range Office
Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

Principal Investigator and Project Manager, performed feasibility studies to develop the “next generation ground penetrating radar (GPR)” for detection of buried ordnance. The approach is based on using a series of three network analyzers, with corresponding data acquisition computers and antennas, in which sequenced steps of narrow-band RF energy are generated and transmitted into the ground for sensing potential targets. Using antennas with varying frequencies, feasibility of detection for various ranges of targets from 10-cm to 200-cm within depth regions of 0.1-m to 50-m was demonstrated. This was performed without emitting significant electromagnetic radiation, which may cause pre-actuation of guided missiles within the proximity of the GPR operation.

 

1994
Ground Zero Characterization and Evaluation of the Construction Material
Properties at the U.S. Air Force  Munitions Module Test Site
Utah Test and Training Range

Performed characterization tests at the U.S. Air Force Munitions Module Storage site to determine the in situ properties of the ground zero (the geologic system) and the concrete-steel structure (the engineered system) prior to detonation of 64 MK84 (2000 pounds) bombs. The characteristics of the engineered and geologic systems were important parts of the hazardous fragment prediction and provided the necessary input data to the quantity-distance (Q-D) assessment criteria.

 

1994
Seismic Response Evaluation of Santa Susana Tunnel After the
Northridge Magnitude 6.8 Earthquake on January 17, 1994  

Conducted field inspection to evaluate the structural integrity of the Santa Susana Tunnel in Simi Valley following the January 17 Northridge Earthquake. The inspection included both the portal area and tunnel lining system and resulted in declaration of safe structural conditions and resumption of water delivery to a population in excess of 120,000 families in the Simi Valley.

 

1993 – 1994
Rock Mechanics Investigation at the KLOTZ Tunnel Explosion Test Site
Älvdalen, Sweden
Sweden Ministry of Defense

Performed rock mass characterization to assess characteristics and structural integrity of the KLOTZ Tunnel which has been subjected to several internal detonation with loading densities as high as 5,000 kg HE per chamber volume since 1986. This program was sponsored through the Norwegian Defense Construction Service, Office of the Chief of Test and Development and Fortification Division.

 

1993 – 1994
Rock Mechanics Investigation Associated with the Accidental Detonation
at the Swiss Military
Underground Explosives  Storage Magazine in Alps,
Steingletscher Installation,
Switzerland

Performed aerial survey and determined the site-specific characteristics of the geologic and engineered systems at the Steingletscher Swiss Army explosive storage installation. The site-specific data were subsequently used to determine the TNT equivalent weight of explosives causing the accidental detonation of explosives in November 2, 1992. The explosion resulted in complete destruction of the facility and caused six fatalities. The Bakhtar Explosives Safety Criteria was used for estimation of the TNT equivalent weight of the explosives.  This program was sponsored by the US Air Force on request from the Swiss Delegates of the KLOTZ organization and agreement of the Swiss Army.

 

1993
Rock Mechanics Investigation – Devil’s Gate Dam
Pasadena, California

Performed laboratory material characterization tests and analysis on several rock samples obtained by Harza Engineers from the Devil’s Gate abutment. The Los Angeles County, Department of Public Works funded this work, as part of their dam rehabilitation program.

 

1993
Rock Mass Characterization and Seismic Response Assessment at Dam Sites
California Division of Safety of Dams
Sacramento, California

Lecture given at the Division of Safety of Dams to highlight importance of proper rock mass characterization for seismic load assessment at dam sites. The methodology discussed use of the characteristics of intact rock as well as discontinuities and other adverse features associated with the geologic system.

 

1993
Material Characterization and Seismic Wave Velocity Measurements
for Tunnel Explosion Tests
Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

Performed seismic velocity survey to characterize tunnels constructed for the verification of the previously developed Explosive Safety Criteria for the United States Air Force. The Schmidt hammer test was conducted for seismic wave velocity measurements and results were used to determine material characteristics of the engineered and geologic systems.

 

1993
Seismic Survey to Characterize Concrete Foundation and Walls  of the Hardened Air Craft Shelter
United States Air Force
Hill Air Force Base, Utah

Performed seismic survey to determine the mechanical characteristics of the concrete foundation at the U.S. Hardened Aircraft Shelter Test Site in Utah.

 

1992
Technical Specifications and Calculations for the Clean Water Program
North City Tunnel Connector – San Diego

Designed and developed support scheme and technical specifications, to meet the 30% design milestone for the tunnel connector carrying large casings for the San Diego Clean Water Program (CWP). The design was based on utilizing full circles, 3-piece steel ribs and shotcrete lining.

 

1991-1997
Development of Safety Criteria for Explosive Storage 
Structures
Air Force Operability Systems Management Office
United States Air Force
Eglin Air Force Base, Florida                                                                                                                            

Developed unique safety criteria for storage of ammunition in underground structures. The method accounts for the characteristics of the engineering, as well as the geologic systems.  The criteria can be used for the safe design and construction of such facilities and the assessment of hazardous effects of fragments associated with the accidental detonation of storage structures. Physical modeling approach was used to verify the formulated empirical equations for “quantity-distance” and maximum range of blast-induced hazardous fragments based on the US DOD Standard hazards classification.

 

1991
Assessment of Support Design for the North Outfall Replacement Sewer
Los Angeles County
CRSS Constructors, Playa Del Rey, California

Performed site inspection and analysis for the design of the North Outfall Replacement Sewer Tunnel following localized support failure.  Recommended effective grouting procedures and a new design of the support elements that would accept the load exerted as a result of full overburden.

 

1990 – 1991
Technology Evaluation and Economic Viability of Extracting Energy from Magma Resources for Electrical Power 
Generation          California Energy Commission, County of Mono, Energy Management Department

Participated in a team of engineers/scientists to evaluate the technological and economic feasibility of utilizing magma resources for electric power generation for the State of California.  The California Energy Commission through the County of Mono, Energy Management Department, funded this project at Mammoth Lakes, California.

 

1990-1991
Design and Construction of a Large Tunnel Undercrossing Pacific Coast Highway
Newport Beach, California

Principal in charge (with two other Principal MDEC-VE Partners) of design and construction of a 24 foot wide tunnel under-crossing the Pacific Coast Highway in Newport Beach.  The eight foot depth of cover was stabilized by jacking concrete-filled steel pipes above the crown and at the foundation locations prior to excavation.  Steel ribs and liner plates were used to support the tunnel walls.

 

1990
Analysis of Excavation Induced Ground Deformation at the 
County of Orange Golf Cart Tunnel                                                                      Irvine Company – Newport Beach, California

Performed elasto-plastic analysis to determine feasibility of utilizing a 24 foot diameter shield to construct the tunnel with a depth of cover about eight feet.  The results of the analysis led to rejecting the shield and considering other methods of excavation, including a multi-drift.

 

1989
Blast Induced Damage to Structures
Nova Scotia Department of Environment
Nova Scotia, Canada

Performed analysis to determine the relationship between the use of explosives and ground subsidence in the Reserve Mines Area of Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. Nolan Davis and Associates – Prime Contractor.

 

1989
Site Characterization – Superconducting Super Collider (SSC)
Waxahachie, Texas.

As the Geomechanics Coordinator, responsible for the development of laboratory test plan and data analysis for the material characterization tests associated with site investigation at the Texas SSC site.

 

1989
Subscale Testing and Analysis of Rock-bolted Tunnels in Jointed 
Media
Defense Nuclear Agency
United States Department of Defense, Washington, D.C.

Developed experimental approach for scale model testing of tunnels in jointed media, designed a flexible rock bolting scheme to increase the shear strength of major through‑going joints, and proved the feasibility of an innovative hardening mode for strategic structures designed in geologic systems.

 

1989
Response of Subsurface Scale‑Model Structures in Fluid Saturated Fractured Media to Simulated Free‑Field Nuclear Detonation
  Defense Nuclear Agency
United States Department of Defense, Washington, D.C.

As Project Manager and Principal Investigator, developed a large scale experimental test program to determine response of scale model struc­tures in fluid saturated fractured media to simulated ground shocks propagating with plane‑wave fronts. Utilized the concept of an impactor‑target – momentum trap using a 20,000‑pound sled for load simulation on a series of fully instrumented 50 in. x 50 in. x 50 in. test blocks with and without associated discontinuities.

 

1988
Tunnel Explosion Test Rock Mass Characterization and 
Fracture Modeling
Chief  Office of Testing and Development, Norwegian Ministry of Defense
Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California

Principal Investigator and Project Manager, conducted site charac­terization for NATO’s joint program on “Quantity‑Distance” (Q‑D) to determine rock mass properties at the tunnel explosion site.  The index properties of the rock joints were used to determine block motion during the detonation time.  The Department of Defense Explosive Safety Board, Norwegian Defense Construction Services, and British Ministry of Defense funded this program.

 

1987
Superconducting Super Collider (SSC)
United States Department of Energy

Played the key role in evaluating of geo-engineering sections of the proposal submitted to DOE by 36 states for construction of the SSC, a high‑energy physics facility to be housed in an underground tunnel structure.  Assessed site conditions and construction‑related environ­mental impacts.  For the final seven “best qualified sites” (BQL), participated in final site investigation and documented field data at Illinois, North Carolina, Tennessee and Michigan.

 

1984 – 1986
Scale‑Model Testing of Tunnel Intersection
                                                                                                                                                                              Defense Nuclear Agency
United States Department of Defense, Washington, D.C.

 As Principal Investigator and Project Manager, developed large‑scale experi­mental approach and formulated a special mix to model scale prop­erties of geologic formations. Designed and fabricated scaled tunnel sections and intersections cast inside large 1‑m3 test blocks and fully instrumented the structures to yield closure data.  Performed large‑ scale tests on cubic specimens with the associated model structures under various stress paths representing in-situ stress conditions at depth.  Evaluated the coupling effects between the in-situ stress and the simulated nuclear blast load on the stability of the unsupported model structures.

 

1984 – 1986
Dynamic Loading on Model Underground Structures
                                                                                                                                                          Defense Nuclear Agency
United States Department of Defense, Washington, D.C.

As Principal Investigator and Project Manager, developed scaling laws for synthesizing geologic material for evaluation of nuclear blast response of structures in rock mass. Evaluated the dynamic response of model, using unsupported, circular cross‑section tunnels under simulated dynamic events using rock simulants. Sub-scale tunnel load response was evaluated by simulating ground shock with plane wave-front.

 

1985
Heated Block Tests
U.S. Department of Energy

Analyzed ultrasonic data from the heated block test at the Colorado School Mines experimental mine to determine in-situ hydro-thermo-mechani­cal properties.

 

1983 – 1985
Advanced Silo Hardening Project
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Defense Nuclear Agency
United States Department of Defense, Washington, D.C.

As Principal Investigator and Project Manager managed 25 scientists in development and evaluation of the static and dynamic properties of high‑strength concrete for hardening nuclear missile silos.  Evaluated material damage of plain and reinforced concrete under static and high‑ rate loading.  Used CAT SCAN technology to assess structural damage in test specimens.

 

1984
Missile Shaft Stabilization
U.S. Bureau of Mines

Large‑scale geotechnical testing and analysis of backfill performance in stabilizing missile egress shafts. Involved in Both experimental and analytical tasks associated with the subject program.

 

1984
Rock Joint Modeling of Nevada Test Site, G Tunnel

Modeled the behavior of individual rock joints in tuff from Nevada Test Site G Tunnel.  Conducted large‑scale experiments to validate the joint behavior model.

 

1983
Radioactive Waste Repository Design
CANMET‑AECL
Ottawa, Canada.

Modeled shear, dilation, normal closure, and permeability coupling of rock joints for nuclear waste repository design.

 

1983
Shear Resistance of Subsea Rock
                                                                                                                                                                                                  DELFT Hydraulics Laboratory                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Netherlands

Modeled shear resistance of rock to subsea dredging using the empirical model developed by Barton-Bandis. Developed a computer software for modeling joint behavior using machine language.

 

1982 – 1984
Joint Friction Testing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Defense Nuclear Agency                                                                                                                                                                                                  United States Department of Defense                                                                                                                                                                                                        Washington, D.C.

Senior project engineer for large‑scale dynamic joint friction and rock bolt testing for improved prediction of block motion and tunnel harden­ing.  Evaluated static and dynamic frictional properties of rock joints based on large‑scale experimental testing and numerical techniques. Oversaw subcon­tract to Materials Research Laboratory to determine the mechanical and hydraulic properties of materials.

 

1982
Large‑Scale Plate‑Loading Tests
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Georgia Power & Light                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Rome, Georgia

Performed large‑scale plate‑loading tests in the pressure tunnel to evaluate the in-situ modulus of deformability of the Rocky Mountain Pumped Hydro Project.  Developed a unique test rig with associated instrumentation for plate‑loading using a circular flatjack with a diverg­ing rock‑bolt‑supported reaction frame.  Managed 5 geomechanics scien­tists at remote field location.  Interacted with local regulatory agen­cies, and coordinated with A/E firm located in Southern Georgia.

 

1982
Silver Mine Shaft Instrumentation
                                                                                                                                                                                    HECLA Mining Company/U.S. Bureau of Mines                                                                                                                                                                     HECLA Silver Mine, Idaho.

Investigated rock mass behavior during the construction of the 7,000‑ft deep shaft, Silver Shaft, at 5,200‑ft level by instrumenting the shaft wall and concrete liner.  Performed elasto-plastic analysis for modeling rock mass behavior close to the shaft wall. Compared the field data obtained from instrument installed around the shaft wall and the closed form solution using computer facility at Terra Tek, Inc., in Salt Lake City, Utah.

 

1981 – 1982
Thermomechanical Properties of Granite
                                                                                                                                                                        Lawrence Berkeley  Laboratory – Stripa Test Mine, Sweden                                                                                                                                              University of California, Berkeley                                                                                                                                                                                            United States Department of Energy

Investigated the thermomechanical properties of Stripa Granite associ­ated with the storage of radioactive waste in Sweden.  Developed data acquisition and experimental facilities for water‑jet‑assisted rock cutting and rock drilling systems.

 

1980 – 1981
Dynamic Response of Piles. Shell Oil Company
                                                                                                                                                                      Princeton University                                                                                                                                                                                                                Department of Civil Engineering                                                                                                                                                                                                Structures and Mechanics Division

 Used centrifuge modeling to evaluate the dynamic response of piles under late­ral loading for offshore structures design.  Designed and construc­ted large centrifuge for modeling.  Investigated geotechnical and dyna­mic properties of soils.  Analyzed short‑term soil‑pile interactions at Princeton Centrifuge Laboratory.  Compiled dynamic properties database and installed on Pilay computer code.  Analyzed vertical penetration of marine pipelines Under simulated laboratory conditions using scaling laws and cen­trifuge test results. This research project was an integral part of the author’s graduate degree (Master of Science) at Princeton University, Department of Civil Engineering, Structures and Mechanics Division

 

1979
Rock Mechanics Instrumentation.  New York City
                                                                                                                                                                Metro Transit Authority (MTA)

Responsible for rock mechanics instrumentation and rock mass monitoring during excavation for the largest single underground opening in North America.  Used state‑of‑the‑ art mechanical and electronics instrumentation to monitor the rock mass behavior during construction, and assisted the A/E firm in the design of support system. Worked on different sections of tunnel project extending from FDR Drive to Manhattan. Installed strain gauges on struts for load build up as excavation proceeded. Identifies and located positions for installing bore-hole extensometers to check for rock mass behavior.

 

1976 – 1979
Creep Behavior of Salt Cores.  American Gas Association
                                                                                                                                                  The Pennsylvania State University                                                                                                                                                                             Department of Mineral Engineering, Geomechanics Section

Designed and developed the “long‑term creep testing facilities” at Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mineral Engineering, Geomechanics Section, for evaluating the inelastic properties of salt for natural gas storage.  Actively involved in experimental and analytical programs associated with storage of natural fuel in rock salt caverns. Developed test program to simulate conditions at depth. Longest creep test was about six months, under various loading conditions. Developed drilling technique for coring through salt blocks utilizing air, satura­ted brine, and oil as cooling media.  Compiled a creep‑behavior database, and developed a closure model to support facility licensing.  Evaluated both mechanical and physical properties of salt material. Developed an analytical plasticity model to predict the modification of yield surface under triaxial loading conditions.  Examined the suita­bility of the Kelvin‑Voight model to predict the visco-elastic behavior of salt.

 

1972 – 1974
Underground Coal Mining.  Great Britain National Coal Board
                                                                                                                                        England

Worked on various aspects of deep underground coal mining projects in South Derbyshire, Leicestershire, and Yorkshire coal fields.  Involved with both production and development crews in mines.  Fully trained and certified in the areas of ventilation, gas testing, and use of explosives in underground coal mines. With the development crew, participated in design and construction of several hundred feet of access tunnels using the conventional drilling-blasting method of excavation and was responsible for the operational safety.  With the production crew, participated in various aspects of recovery from several long faces in deep coal mines.

 

Membership of Professional-Organizations

Associateship of Royal School of Mines, London, England

American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers

American Society of Civil Engineers

American Underground‑Space Association

American Society of Mechanical Engineering

American Military Engineers

American Concrete Institute

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

International Society of Rock Mechanics, Scale Effects Working Group

The International Society for Optical Engineering

International Association of Engineering Geology

Materials Research Society

Triangle Fraternity of Engineers, Architects, and Scientists

 

Current and Previous-Employers

1989 – Present Managing Director – Chief Scientist/Engineer Bakhtar Technologies, LLC.
2007 – Present President and CEO Bakhtar Medical Imaging Corporation, (BMI)
1989 – Present President and Senior Scientist Bakhtar Associates
1985 – 1989 Principal Engineer The Earth Technology Corporation
1982 – 1985 Manager, Applied Mechanics Group Terra Tek, Inc.
1981 – 1982 Research Assistant Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory
1981 – 1982 Research Assistant University of California, Berkeley
1979 – 1987 Research Assistant Princeton University
1976 – 1979 Research Assistant The Pennsylvania State University
1976 Application Field Engineer Woodward-Clyde Consultants
1975 Underground Mining Engineer Rio Tinto Zinc (RTZ) Mining Company
1974 Engineering Geologist United Nations – Engineering Geologist Avalanche Inv.
1972 – 1974 Underground Mine Engineer Trainee Great Britain National Coal Board

International-Experience

Mining Engineering ‑ British National Coal Board (2 Years Underground Coal Mines)

Lead/Zinc Mining ‑ Rio Tinto Zinc

Rock Mechanics ‑ Canadian Atomic Energy (CANMET)

Modeling of Shear Resistance of Rocks to Sub‑Sea Dredging ‑ Delft Hydraulic Laboratory, Holland

Explosions in Hard Rocks, Norwegian Ministry of Defense, Oslo, Norway

Characterization of Tunnel Explosion Test Site – Confortia, Swedish National Defence Establishment, Älvdalen, Sweden

Accident Investigation at Underground Munitions Chamber – Defence Technology and Procurement Agency, Bern, Switzerland

Underground Munitions Storage Design US Navy/NATO – Sicily, Italy

Classified (Top Secret) Foreign Projects.

 

 

Publications and Reports

Bakhtar, K., “Assessment of Dewatering System for Deep Shafts Constructed in Saturated Fractured Sedimentary Formations,” Technical Report BT-TR-2015-13, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, December 31, 2015.

Bakhtar, K., ““As-Built” Bearing and Coordinates of Shafts and Tunnels Constructed in Saturated Fractured Sedimentary Formations, New Mexico USA,” Technical Report BT-TR-2015-12, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, November 2015.

Bakhtar, K., “Geology and Excavation Status at Whitehorse Exploration Deep Underground Project Site-1 in New Mexico,” Technical Report BT-TR-2015-11, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, October 2015.

Bakhtar, K., Volumetric Imaging for Assessment of Exploratory Drillings in a Deep Shaft Constructed in Saturated Fractured Sedimentary Formations,” Technical Report BT-TR-2015-10, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, September 2015.

Bakhtar, K., “Standoff Mobile Device for Detection of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and SNM Based on Forced Resonance Imaging (FRI),” Technical Report BT-TR-2015-09, Submitted to United States Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, September 2015.

Bakhtar, K., “Exploratory Drilling at Shaft #7 Elevation 5977-ft Whitehorse Exploration in New Mexico,” Technical Report BT-TR-2015-08, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, August 2015.

Bakhtar, K., Post-Flood Restoration of Underground Activities at Whitehorse Exploration Site,” Technical Report BT-TR-2015-07, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, July 2015.

Bakhtar, K., “Assessment of Underground Activities at Elevation 5977-ft Whitehorse Exploration Site-1,” Technical Report BT-TR-2015-06, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, June 2015.

Bakhtar, K., “Exploratory Drillings from South Wall of a Deep Shaft Located in Fully Saturated Sedimentary Formation,” Technical Report BT-TR-2015-05, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, May 2015.

Bakhtar, K., “Sinking Shaft #7 and Inclined Shaft #8 for Final Descend to Elevation 5970-ft,” Technical Report BT-TR-2015-04, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, April 2015.

Bakhtar, K., “Short Exploratory Tunnel in Sandy-Clay Saturated Sedimentary Formation at Great Depth,” Technical Report BT-TR-2015-03, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, March 2015.

Bakhtar, K., “Construction of an Exploratory Short Tunnel with Wood Support in Saturated Sedimentary Formation at Great Depth,” Technical Report BT-TR-2015-02, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, February 2015.

Bakhtar, K., “Exploratory Drilling and Shaft Stabilization in Water Bearing Fractured Sedimentary Rocks at Great Depth,” Technical Report BT-TR-2015-01, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, January 2015.

Bakhtar, K., “Assessment of Whitehorse Exploration Shaft Conditions at Elevation 5979-ft,” Technical Report BT-TR-2014-09, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, December, 2014.

Bakhtar, K., “Hydrology and Dewatering of Shaft #6 At Whitehorse Exploration Site-1,” Technical Report BT-TR-2014-08, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, November 30, 2014.

Bakhtar, K., Evaluation of Near-Field Geologic Characteristics Using Horizontal Exploratory Drilling at Bottom of Shaft #6 Whitehorse Exploration Site-1,” Technical Report BT-TR-2014-07, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, September 01 to October 30, 2014.

Bakhtar, K., “Exploratory Drilling and Numerical Modelling at Elevation 5979-Ft Shaft #6 Whitehorse Exploration Site-1,” Technical Report BT-TR-2014-06, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, August 31, 2014.

Bakhtar, K., “Characterization of Geologic Formation Hosting Shaft #6 at Elevation 5990-ft Based on Drilling and Volumetric Image Reconstruction,” Technical Report BT-TR-2014-05, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, June 30, 2014.

Bakhtar, K., “Exploratory Drilling for Detected Deep-Seated Cavity Realization at Elevation 6000-ft,” Technical Report BT-TR-2014-04, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, April 30, 2014.

Bakhtar, K., “Further Assessment of Drilling Schemes to Breach Detected Deep-Seated Natural Underground Opening,” Technical Report BT-TR-2014-03, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, March 30, 2014.

Bakhtar, K., “BakhtarRadar Volumetric Image Reconstruction of Deep Seated Natural Openings,” Technical Report BT-TR-2014-02, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, February 28, 2014.

Bakhtar, K., “Realization of Detected Cavity Location from Inside of Shaft #5 at Elevation 6016-ft,” Technical Report BT-TR-2014-01, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, January 31, 2014.

Bakhtar, K., “Assessment of Detected Concealed Deep Seated Cavity Breaching Point Coordinates Using as Build Dimensional Details of Shafts and Connecting Tunnels,”, Technical Report BT-TR-2013-20, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico,  December 31, 2013

Bakhtar, K., “Assessment of Geologic Features Beyond Saturated Zone of Shaft #4 Walls During Construction Between Elevations 6035-ft and 6030-ft Using BakhtarRadar,” Technical Report BT-TR-2013-19, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico,  November 31, 2013.

Bakhtar, K., “BakhtarRadar Volumetric Imaging and Sequence of Excavation at Elevation 6035-ft,” Technical Report BT-TR-2013-18, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, October 31, 2013.

Bakhtar, K., “Excavation and Hydrological Issues at Shaft #4 Elevation 6050-ft,” Technical Report BT-TR-2013-17, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, September 30, 2013.

Bakhtar, K., “Shaft Sinking in Water Bearing Formation at Elevation 6052-ft Whitehorse Exploration Site-1,” Technical Report BT-TR-2013-16, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, August 31, 2013.

Bakhtar, K., “Assessment of Groundwater Movement around Whitehorse Exploration Shaft #4 and Stability Analysis at Elevation 6058-ft,” Technical Report BT-TR-2013-15, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, July 31, 2013.

Bakhtar, K., “Stability Assessment of Shaft #4 at Elevation 6070-ft Based on Elasto-Plastic Analysis,” Technical Report BT-TR-2013-14, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, June 30, 2013.

Bakhtar, K., “Stress and Radial Displacements around The Shaft #4 at Elevation 6090ft,” Technical Report BT-TR-2013-04, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, May 30, 2013.

Bakhtar, K., “Relative Shaft and Cavity Locations at 6100-ft Elevation Based on Reconstructed Volumetric Imaging Using BakhtarRadar,” Technical Report BT-TR-01252013-03, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, April 30, 2013.

Bakhtar, K., “Enhanced Volumetric Image Reconstruction for Realization of Complex Underground Openings at Exploration Site-1,” Technical Report BT-TR-01252013-02, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, February 29, 2013.

Bakhtar, K., “Cross-Hole Tomography using BakhtarRadar Portable Configuration at Elevation 289.5-ft, Shaft #3, Site-1, Mountainair, New Mexico,” Technical Report BT-TR-01252013-01, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, January 25, 2013.

Bakhtar, K., “Rockmass Investigation Based on Horizontal and inclined Drilling at Bottom of Shaft #3 – Mountainair New Mexico,” Technical Report BT-TR-12302012-22, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, December 30, 2012.

Bakhtar, K., “Deep Based Shaft Floor and Wall Interrogation to Locate a Natural Complex Underground Cavity System,” Technical Report BT-TR-11302012-21, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, New Mexico, November 30, 2012.

Bakhtar, K., “Detection of Large Deep Based Natural Underground Complex Openings Behind a Shaft Wall Using BakhtarRadar,” Technical Report BT-TR-10312012-20, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, Inc., New Mexico, October 31, 2012.

Bakhtar, K., “Whitehorse Exploration Shaft #3 Interrogation at 249.5-ft Level Using BakhtarRadar,” Technical Report BT-TR-09262012-17, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, Inc., New Mexico, September 27, 2012.

Bakhtar, K.,” Tomographic Imaging through Sealed Lead Box (Faraday’s Cage) Using BakhtarRadar with Forced-Resonance Capability,” Technical Report, BT-TR-2012-18, Prepared for Chief Technology Officer, Agilent Technologies, August 22, 2012.

Bakhtar, K., “Performance Assessment of Massive Ordnance Penetrator (MOP) for Hard Target Defeat,” Technical Report BT-TR-2012-06, Submitted to Defense Threat Reduction Agency, April 26, 2012.

Bakhtar, K., “Final Analysis of Complex Cavity Detection at Whitehorse Exploration Site-1 New Mexico,” TR-BTLLC-02142012-01, Technical Report, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, Inc., February 14, 2012.

Bakhtar, K., “Fracture Realization /Mapping of Terra Tek Schlumberger Mancos Shale Block Based on Reflection Tomography using BakhtarRadar,” Technical Report BA-TR 2011-15, Submitted to Schlumberger, November 6, 2011.

Bakhtar, K., “Preliminary Design of an Access Adit to Detected Cavity Network at Site-1,” Technical Report BA-TR-08072011-10, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, August 17, 2011.

Bakhtar, K., “Below Ground Cavity Detection Based on Reflection Tomography using BakhtarRadar at Whitehorse Exploration Site-2,” Technical Report BA-TR-05302011-08, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, May 30, 2011.

Bakhtar, K., “Detection of Embedded Anomalies at Whitehorse Exploration Site-2 Using BakhtarRadar Technology,” Technical Report BA-TR-04182011-06, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, April 18, 2011.

Bakhtar, K., “Preliminary Report on Ground Interrogation at Operation Site-X New Mexico,” Technical Report BA-TR-11302010-09, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, December 10, 2010.

Bakhtar, K., “Analysis of Received/Backscattered RF Signal from Selected Buried Anomalies at Operation Site-X New Mexico, “Technical Report BA-TR-01302011-08, Submitted to Whitehorse Exploration, February 03, 2010.

Bakhtar, K., “Performance Assessment of Massive Ordnance Penetrator (MOP) with Advanced Capability,” Technical Report BA-TR-2009-2, Submitted to Defense Threat Reduction Agency, April 2009.

Bakhtar, K., “Calibration Tests For Vehicle Borne Improvised Explosive Devices (VBIED) Detection Using 200 Pounds (91 Kg) C-4.” Joint NSWC Indian Head Bakhtar Associates Cooperative Research and Development Agreement – Dated February 22, 2006, Technical Report BA-TR-200509-01, February 5, 2009.

Bakhtar, K., “Detection through Double Shielded (Lead-Aluminium) Sealed Container Filled With Salt Saturated Sand,” Submitted to Shell International Exploration and Production Company, TR-BA-2007-31, November 30, 2007.

Bakhtar, K., “Forced-Resonance Medical Imaging,” Technical Report BA-TR-2007-24, Submitted to US Navy, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Maryland, October 2007.

Bakhtar, K., “Overcoming Faraday’s Cage Limitations Using Forced Resonance RF Sensor Utilizing BakhtarRadar Platform,“ Tests and Evaluation Conducted on a Sealed Lead Box, Technical Report, BA-TR-2007-20, Sensitive Document, Limited Distribution, September 29, 2007.

Bakhtar, K., “Realization of Buried Human Remains Using BakhtarRadar Based on Reflection tomography,” Technical Report, TR-BA-2007-03, Submitted to the University of California, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center,  April 10, 2007.

Bakhtar, K., and Khalkhali, I., “Application of BakhtarForcedResonanceImagingRadar (FRI) for Volumetric Imaging and 4-Dimensional Visualization of Cancerous Tumors Preliminary Feasibility Tests on Radiology Phantom – Apple – Orange – Egg,” Technical Report, BA-TR-2007-19, Submitted to UCLA Harbor Medical Center, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (LABioMed), June 6, 2007.

Bakhtar, K., “Overcoming Faraday’s Cage Limitations Using Forced Resonance RF Sensor Utilizing BakhtarRadar Platform,” Technical Report, BT-TR-2007-11, Naval Weapons Center U. S. Navy, Seal Beach, California, September 29, 2007.

Bakhtar, K., “Detection of Buried Pipes at Gas Technology Institute in Des Plaines, Illinois,” Demonstration No-3, Technical Report, BA-TR-2006-39, submitted to Gas Technology Institute, August 2, 2006.

Bakhtar, K., “Bakhtar Wall Interrogator (BWI),” Assessment of the Next Generation EM Sensor, Technical Report, BA-TR-2006-37, submitted to US Army, Piccatiny Arsenal,  July 19, 2006.

Bakhtar, K., “Standoff Detection of IED Laden Vehicle,” Technical Report BT-BR-2006-11, Submitted to Defense Threat Reduction Agency, June 2006.

Bakhtar, K., “Real Time Detection of Personnel Borne Improvised Explosive Device (PBIED),” 2nd International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, Madrid, Spain, March 15 – 17, 2006.

Bakhtar, K., “Tunnel Detection at Otay Mesa and Calexico,” NORAD USNORTHCOM J42, Technical Report, TR-BA-2006-06, Submitted to Defense Threat Reduction Agency, March 13, 2006.

Bakhtar, K., “Standoff Real Time Explosive Sensor,” Presented at Homeland Security Symposium II, Naval Base Ventura County, Port Hueneme, California, February 23, 2006.

Bakhtar, K., “Submerged Detection of PDM Mine and Base Plate,” Submitted to US Navy, Coronado Island, San Diego, California, Technical Report TR-BA-2006-03, February 8, 2006.

Bakhtar, K., “Detection of Bacillus Thuringiensis and Triethyl Phosphate Shielded in Artillery Shell – An Experimental Investigation Using Bakhtar Weapons of Mass Destruction (BWMD),” Sensor Technical Report BA-TR-2005-20 Submitted to Lockheed Martine Missiles and Fire Control, October 23, 2005.

Bakhtar, K., “Detection of Personal Borne IED Using Bakhtar Explosive Detector (BXD),” Technical Report BA-TR-2005-02, Submitted to: USARMY RDECOM CERDEC 2WD AMSRD-CER-IW-IM, May 17, 2005.

Bakhtar, K., “Detection of Armed and Unarmed Personnel behind a Thick Wall Using Bakhtar Electromagnetic Sensor,” Technical Report BA-TR-2004-06, Submitted to Defense Threat Reduction Agency, June 21, 2004.

Bakhtar, K., “A Multi-Purpose Portable Sensor for Shielded WMD Detection,” BA-TR- 2005-03, Submitted to: USARMY RDECOM CERDEC I2WD, AMSRD-CER-IW-IM, April 27, 2005.

Bakhtar, K., “Bakhtar VBIED Detector,” Technical Report BA-TR-2004-15, Submitted to: G-9 – Innovation Technology Marine Expeditionary Force, Camp Pendleton, California December 2004.

Bakhtar, K., and Linger, D., “Blast-Induced Ground Shock From Detonation Of BLU-109 Penetrator Weapon with Advanced Capability In Hard Limestone,” Defense Threat Reduction Agency, BA-TR-2004-09, August 3, 2004.

Bakhtar, K., “Near Field Response of Us Navy Classified Samples “1,” “2,” And “3”To Bakhtar Time Domain Identifier (BTDI),” BA-TR-2004-08, Submitted to US Navy, Director of Special Technologies, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, Virginia, July 11, 2004.

Bakhtar, K., and Linger, D., “Performance Assessment of BLU-109 Penetrator Weapon with Advanced Capability,” Defense Threat Reduction Agency, BA-TR-2004-06, August 3, 2004.

Bakhtar, K., “Detection Of Armed And Unarmed Personnel Behind A Thick Wall Using Bakhtar Electromagnetic Sensor,” Technical Report BA-TR-2004-06, Submitted to: Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Ft. Belvoir, Virginia 22060-6201, June 21, 2004.

Bakhtar, K., “Detection of Shielded Weapon Grade Radiological Material Using AZIEL,” Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Contract DTRA01-03-C-0060, BA-TR-2004-04, May 17, 2004.

Bakhtar, K., “Detection of Shielded Radiological Material Using AZIEL,” Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Contract DTRA01-03-C-0060, BA-TR-2004-03, April 27, 2004.

Bakhtar, K., “Performance Assessment of Penetrator Weapons,” Aeronautical Systems Center, Air Force Material Command, SBIR Phase II, Contract No. F08630-02-C-0020, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, March 2004.

Bakhtar, K., and Sagal, E., “U. S. Air Force EarthRadar for Detection and Discrimination of Buried Unexploded Ordnance,” IEEE Aerospace and Electronics SYSTEMS Magazine, ISSN 0885-8985, Volume 17, No: 2, February 2002.

Bakhtar, K., “Detection of Water Table at Simi Valley Golf Course Using EarthRadar,” Report submitted to the United Nations Children Funds in Support of Refugees in the Third World Countries, February 2002,

Bakhtar, K., “Performance Assessment of Penetrator Weapons,” Aeronautical Systems Center, Air Force Material Command, SBIR Phase I, Contract No. F08630-01-C-0025, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, 2001, Submitted October 2001.

Bakhtar, K., “Detecting, Discriminating Buried UXO,” The Military Engineer Magazine, Volume 93, No: 613, page 38, October 2001.

Bakhtar, K. and Sagal, E., “Development of Reflection Tomography Software and Antennae for EarthRadar Buried UXO/Clutter Discrimination,” US Air Force, Contract F08630-98-C-0031, SBIR Phase II, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, 2001.

Bakhtar, K, and Sagal, E., “Underwater Mine Detection at Coronado Island Using US Air Force EarthRadar,” Submitted to US Navy EODGRUEONE, Coronado, San Diego, California, May 4, 2001

Bakhtar, K,. and Sagal E., “Noninvasive Subsurface Ground Characterization,” United States Air Force, Edwards Air Force Base, Contract F08630-98-C-0031 MOD 10, July 2000.

Bakhtar, K., Sagal, E., Jenus, J., Jr., “Detection and Discrimination of Buried UXO at Naval Weapons Station Using US Air Force EarthRadar,” 29th Department of Defense Explosive Safety Seminar, New Orleans, Louisiana, July 18 – 20, 2000.

Bakhtar, K., “Performance Assessment of Underground Munitions Storage Facilities,” International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, pp 369 – 384, June 2000.

Bakhtar, K., and Sagal, E., “Subsurface Investigation at Suspected Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel (AOC 426) – Edwards Air Force Base – Using Us Air Force EarthRadar,” Technical Support Submitted to Installation Restoration Division, Environmental Management Directorate, Edwards Air Force Base, California, May 2000.

Bakhtar, K., “Performance Assessment of Underground Munitions Storage Facilities,” International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, pp 369 – 384, Vol. 37, 2000.

Bakhtar, K. “Italian Navy Standard Missile Test Cell Hardened Wall Anchorage Design,” Italian Navy, Sicily, Italy, March 20, 2000.

Bakhtar, K. and Sagal, E, “Detection and Discrimination of Buried Small Arms and Grenades at Naval Weapons Station Using US Air Force EarthRadar – Part I,” Technical Report to United States Navy, Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California, December 15, 1999.

Bakhtar, K. and Sagal, E, “Detection and Discrimination of Buried UXO in Dredged Fine Silt at Naval Weapons Station Using US Air Force EarthRadar – Parts II and III,” Technical Report to United States Navy, Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California, August 15, 2000.

Bakhtar, K., and Sagal, E., “RF Transmission Through a Drill Stem Using the US Air Force EarthRadar System,” TR-1998-BA-17, Submitted to Resource Enterprises, Salt Lake City, Utah, October 20, 1998.

Bakhtar, K., Sagal, E., Jenus, J., Jr., and Churillo, C., “Initial Evaluation of US Air Force EarthRadar for Detection of Buried Glass Vial,” Contract F08630-98-C-0031, TR-1998-BA-16, United States Air Force, ASC/WMGB (EHR) Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, October 15, 1998.

Bakhtar, K., and Sagal, E., “Performance Evaluation of Next Generation Horn and Adaptive Antennae – US Air Force EarthRadar System,” Contract F08630-98-C-0031, T1998-BA-15, United States Air Force, ASC/WMGB (EHR) Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, October 20, 1998.

Bakhtar, K., “Shallow-Depth Soft Ground Tunneling In Urban Areas,” SAROCK, EscolaPolitécnica da Universidade de São Paulo Departamento de Engenharia de Minas, Rua Prof. Mello Moraes, No 2773, Cidade Univesitãria CEP – 05508-900- São Paulo, S. P.- Brasil, November 22 – 24, 1998

Bakhtar, K., “Simulation of a Tunnel Explosion Test Using Physical Modeling at 1-g, ”SAROCK, Escola Politécnica da Universidade de São Paulo Departamento de Engenharia de Minas, Rua Prof. Mello Moraes, No 2773, Cidade Univesitãria CEP – 05508-900- São Paulo, S. P.- Brasil, November 22 – 24, 1998.

Bakhtar, K., “Performance Assessment of Underground Munitions Storage Facilities,” Neville G. W. Cook Conference, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California, October 16 – 17, 1998.

Bakhtar, K., and Sagal, E., “Results of Detection Test Conducted on Buried Liquid Filled and Empty Glass Bottles Using US Air Force EarthRadar System,” BA-TR-1998-11, Contract F08630-98-C-0031, United States Air Force, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, July31, 1998.

Bakhtar, K., and Jenus, Jr., J., “Back Scattered Signal from Skid-Mounted Antennae for Buried UXO Detection Using US Air Force EarthRadar System,” Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International, AUSVI ’98, Huntsville, Alabama, June 8 – 12 1998.

Bakhtar, K., and Sagal, E., “Results of Submerged Metallic and Plastic Target Tests at Del Mar Harbor – Camp Pendleton California Using US